“Europe is equipping itself for the controlled demolition of the ship.
The practice of beaching, as in Turkey, India, Bangladesh and China, and working conditions, which make it the sector with the highest risk of fatal injury, will be gradually abandoned, but will remain, however, some of the black pages of Labour”
In the means of both civil and military navigation has been done in the past widespread use of asbestos and materials containing it.
Even today asbestos is present on board various ships and continues to represent a serious problem of occupational hygiene especially during the operations of ship repair.
The main functions for which the asbestos was used were the following: insulation of the ship’s structure and pipelines for fluids, fire protection, sound absorption, sound-deadening and personal protection during the performance of some processes such as welding.
And ‘advisable to divide the list of materials containing asbestos in shipbuilding and on board ships and in FRIABLE or COMPACT.
Are all considered to be friable asbestos materials used for the insulation of the hot parts of the engine (exhaust manifolds, fuel supply pipes, turbines, steam pipes and boilers) and as anti-rumble thermal-fire insulator of the internal bulkheads. The friable material was formed by the crude fiber, usually amphibolic varieties , sprayed on the plates and the structures after these had undergone an anti-rust treatment. Crude fiber, usually crocidolite, was used as a filling Pillow with Heat-insulating fabric wrapping of asbestos, usually chrysotile, which were used for the thermal insulation of coupling flanges of pipes and also of the coupling flanges of large turbines, usually in steam and in more limited number gas. The thermal insulation of pipes was assured with preformed cups made up of
low-density materials such as asbestos fiber is pressed is inserted in mineral matrices very weak; these components conferred to these artifacts a poor mechanical strength and a consequent high friability. Among the friable materials also include textiles (towels, ribbons, cords, and packing Filotti) which were coated with metal pipes for the transport of hot fluids and even cold; in the latter case, asbestos was used as condensation.
Interesting to point out that the coating of internal bulkheads was not unique on every ship in the metal, but could be subject to substantial differences depending on the type of project, the vessel and the client’s request. The scheme followed for the construction
a coating provided for the application of several layers each consist of materials of different nature:
1) protective coating against rusting or less covered by thick paint (damping);
2) flocked asbestos sprayed or alternatively artificial mineral wool mattress;
3) woven wire mesh;
4) exterior finish achieved in different ways:
• plaster concrete reinforced with asbestos fiber;
• cardboard perforated asbestos;
• Asbestos painted canvas;
• marinite laminated.
The plastering with cement asbestos could be accomplished by spraying and finishing with a trowel or application manual with simple trowel. Usually the latter type of finish was used to conduct termoisolate with cups covered with wire mesh.
The various types of ships had and still have very diverse needs of insulating materials. With regard to the motor apparatus, common to all types of vessel, the tanks and the supply line of the fuel must be heat-insulated given that the fuels need to be maintained at temperatures such as to make fluid, around 40 ° approximately.
The crankcase and cylinder heads of diesel engines are water-cooled, but the smoke exhaust manifolds and systems supercharging (turbocharging) need to be thermally insulated with material resistant to very high temperatures; in the past they used asbestos nowadays using refractory ceramic fibers. The exhaust fumes, the so-called “Funnel” is insulated throughout its long journey to the outlet.
In vessels with steam propulsion were very popular until the ’70s. Large boilers heated by
liquid fuels, which had replaced the old coal produced by the steam turbine was moved
propellers. This system provided an intricate system of pipes that needed large quantities of materials insulating and resistant to high temperatures. Asbestos undoubtedly responded well to these requirements. It is estimated that the amount of asbestos in the insulation of the engine required a turbine steamship was in the amount specifiedtively triple than that necessary to the insulation of a diesel engine. In all ships the motor apparatus includes barriers flame retardant that separate it from the rest of the ship. Another local common to all ships that need to be
isolated from the rest is the kitchen where they can find an open flame.
With regard to the hull first great distinction can be made between warships and merchant vessels. The first, being possibly by their nature subject to so-called “enemy fire” must provide a complex system of subdivision to prevent the spread of fire; also the need for an effective fire protection is due also to the fact that in the vast majority of military ships storage is more or less extensive ammunition for obvious reasons must be well protected from fire or overheating. Regarding the submarines, in addition to termoisolamenti
common to those of the vessels, there is a need to coat the hull, that immersion is all in direct contact with water, treatment with anti-condensation to ensure the livability of the interior spaces.
Even among the merchant ships the need for use of insulating materials is quite varied. Passenger ships are that require a high number of reasons for fire compartmentation and many soundproofing barriers for containment the noise of the engine, as well as treatments and anti termoisolamenti housing. These are all characteristics
which responded well to asbestos. Other types of cargo ships, such as those for transport and mixed oil tankers, had a use of insulating materials made of asbestos for the motor apparatus and the block cabins and services for the crew, while such use was limited or absent altogether in the part of the hull (bilge, tank) designed to contain the gear to carry. In between lie the ferries, in which the hangar for vehicles had the walls and ceilings insulated with sprayed asbestos.
Large quantities of friable asbestos-containing materials have also been used in the shipyards of iron constructions need to assist in the process of construction of the hull and in particular by welders. Heat-resistant materials are still in use during welding operations, this is obviously not asbestos-containing insulation materials.
The need for use of insulating materials are found in the preheating of the metal parts of different mass that must be joined by welding. Electric heaters coated braided asbestos were put in contact with surfaces metal until they reach the required temperature by welding. In some cases, the welders could also use pillows insulation to maintain the temperature in the metal and to avoid sudden cooling of the welds. Asbestos sheeting
were used both for the protection of parties as not to ruin with splashes of molten metal, either as a temporary protection
of other workers who were in the vicinity of welders. A classic use of asbestos sheeting was that of the coating the boards of the scaffolding when other workers were working the floors below on the same vertical the welder. The continuous handling and exposure to high temperatures of these artifacts they wore out the consistency so as to require a continuous change.
The materials used in shipbuilding COMPACT were the following: The amiantite (also present on the market with the name of sirite). This material consists of a mixture of resin (rubber) and asbestos was marketed in sheets and used for packaging seals. The friability of this material increased after use and dispersed fibers, also if in limited quantities, especially when it was removed with the aid of tools. The Marinite and Eternave were constituted as a chalky-cement mixture, usually by the variety amosite asbestos, and other fillers. With this material were produced panels that were used for internal cladding or for coating surfaces insulated with asbestos spraying or artificial mineral wool. The compactness of these materials however, is not comparable to that
higher than the real asbestos cement, commonly called asbestos. These materials, however, they issued copious quantities of fiber when cutting with circular saws or jigsaws and even worse during shaping,
or when, after the installation, electricians them pierced for the passage of cables and application of components electricity. Asbestos cement flat sheets of reduced thickness for the coating of bulkheads and insulated doors. The slabs denominated Petralit, also produced by Eternit of Casale Monferrato, contained chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos varieties.
The outer covering of bulkheads and ceilings and pipes insulated with asbestos or mineral wool insulation when made of a mixture of asbestos and cement mortar in proportion to 1:2. The floors are vinyl-asbestos, a kind linoleum tile format consists of a mixture of resin and asbestos high degree of compactness. The brake pads of any kind, commonly called linings.
Even in the workshops were held on the ground working with asbestos-containing materials.